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Dr. Arnold Needleman on Diabetes

By: Dr. Arnold Needleman

Glucose Meter for Diabetes

What is the difference between Type I and Type II Diabetes?

People with Type I diabetes (about 10% of diabetics) have an absolute deficiency in insulin and require insulin survival.

People with Type II diabetes (about 90% of diabetics) are either insulin resistant or have a relative insulin deficiency. While Type II diabetics ultimately require insulin, they are not dependent on it for survival.

How can you treat Diabetes?

Diabetes is treated initially with lifestyles modifications that include regular exercise, a diet with moderate carbohydrates, low saturated fats and high fiber. When these changes are not sufficient to control blood glucose then modifications are warranted, which may be oral or injectable.

What is insulin?

Insulin is a polypeptide hormone secreted by beta cells of the pancreas and is central to regulating carbohydrate and fat metabolism. Manufactured insulin comes in short, intermediate and long acting formulations.

Insulin Dictionary

What are some long-term effects of diabetes?

Long-term effects of diabetes can involve any organ systems. It increases the risk of myocardial infraction and stroke. It is a major cause of end-stage renal disease (requiring dialysis), blindness, and limb amputation from foot ulcers caused by peripheral neuropathy.

What are risk factors for developing diabetes?

Risk factors for developing diabetes include a Body Mass Index > 25 kg/m2, physical inactivity, hypertension (BP>140/90 mm/Hg), a first-degree relative with diabetes as well as certain ethnic groups (e.g. African Americans, Latinos, Native Americans, Pacific Islanders). Also, women with gestational diabetes or delivering a baby > 9lbs are at risk.

What are some ways to prevent getting Type II diabetes?

The best way of preventing diabetes is a healthy lifestyle, including regular physical activity, minimal alcohol consumption, and eating a diet low in saturated fats with moderate carbohydrate consumption.

Is there a cure for diabetes?

Certainly in some obese individuals, weight loss can eliminate the need for medication and get glucose levels into a normal range. In people with Type I diabetes, transplantation of beta cells holds great promise in correcting the metabolic abnormalities associated with insulin deficiency.

How many people have diabetes?

According to a 2011 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) report, nearly 26 million Americans have diabetes and an additional 79 million people > 20 years old have pre diabetes. The estimated total cost of diabetes care approaches $200 billion.

The content on this website is for informative purposes only. It is not meant to treat or diagnose any symptoms or illnesses. Should you have any health related questions, you should contact your health care provider.

About the Author

Dr. Arnold Needleman photo Dr. Arnold Needleman

Born in Brooklyn , NY. Dr. Needleman received his undergraduate education at Harvard University. He then went to Medical School at the University of Miami and completed his residency at Jackson Memorial Hospital in Miami. He is a member of the American College of Physicians, and is Board Certified in Internal Medicine. Dr. Needleman has been with MCCI Medical Group since 1984.